THE COINS BELOW ARE NOT FOR SALE. This is a compilation of past for-sale offers of Cambodian coinage, with background information on the series. HERE are the for-sale offers.
FOX COLLECTION: The core of this listing is the collection of the late Anton Fox, one of the best ever formed. Anton began collecting the Indochina series generally when he served there during the Vietnam War, but by the 1980s had confined his interests largely to the coinage of Cambodia and the medals of French Indochina. He was a serious researcher and buyer in both series, and dealt with auction houses in Asia, Europe, and the US.
LITERATURE For convenience the listings are referenced to K#s (Bruce, Colin, SCWC, 19th & 20th C. editions), though it is incomplete, filled with errors, and the 1860 series has been moved to Unusual World Coins!. I have made up or modified some numbers. KM's valuations are not useful either. L = Lecompte, Jean, Monnaies et Jetons des Colonies Françaises, 2000 Ed. the best reference for the 1860-1953 series, successor to Gadoury, whose 1979 and 1988 Coloniales works included post-1953 issues. A useful limited edition coin & banknotes catalog has been produced by Allan Lim. For much of the background information on early series I am indebted to Joe Cribb: "A Hoard of Cambodian Coins," Coin Hoards VI, 1981, p.129-135, and "The Introduction of European Style Coins in Cambodia," seriaized in Seaby's Coin and Medal Bulletin 1981-82, and Charles Panish, "The Coins of North Cambodia," ANA Museum Notes 20, 1975, p. 161-174. Also useful is H. Rolland, "Ètude Numismatique sur le Protectorat du Cambodge" in Courrier Numismatique #29, 1932.
CLICK ON THUMBNAIL TO SEE ENLARGED IMAGE
PHASE I COINAGE: c. 1500 - 1650 NATIVE RULE
Cribb quotes S. Sarai (JNSI 1971 p.90-104) in attributing the first Cambodian coinage to the usurper Kan (1499-1505, or 1512-26), and the traveler Gabriel Quiroga de San Antonio in 1595 as finding coinage in three denominations of ratio 1:1/2:1/4 with designs of Cock (K9 & Panish 1a,,9d), Snake (K3), and heart with Flower (K4). The silver-washed billon types are probably later, and descended from the full unit. Cribb also asserts that there are two parallel series of coinage, those with and without borders (beaded or solid circle), each ranging from silver to billon to copper. As the denomination breakdown, dating, and ordering of types in KM is useless, I have followed Cribb's rearrangement of Panish's types, though combining the border / no border types. According to Panish all coins were minted at Battambang except K4 and K25/28 at Siem Reap. Both the rarity and high grade (or holed state for wearing) suggest that this coinage, possibly excepting the three types seen by Quiroga which are commoner, was issued for religious rather than commercial purposes. For convenience I have called the Unit "Fuang," though even at the lower 1.8-1.9g Ayuthian standard, the likely earliest Hamsa pieces (P1) are light. All coins are uniface.
A few of the Phase I types have come on the market from small hoards, though most rarely appear and some are known from single specimens. Most Phase II and III coinage is extremely common.
K18 Crab Double Fuang Silver, 15m, 2.79g. Apparently unpublished, and only the second known type of Double Fuang. The weight of this Fox specimen squares with P11b, Dragon or Hypogriff, which Wicks notes at 2.7-2.8g for 2 specimens, and Cribb calls a double Fuang. Compared to K19 (P8a), the Crab Fuang, seems slightly cruder stylistically, with a large body in proportion to the appendages, and large design in relation to the flan. KA1 Crab 1/8 Fuang Silver, 6-7m, avg. .152g for 15 pieces, flat flan. Cribb calls it a 1/4 Fuang following Panish's weights, but Wicks' figures are more exact and closer to my own finding. Fine style, though simplified in detail due to the tiny flans. KA1a Crab 1/8 Fuang Silver, 6m, .158g, thicker flan, cruder, bolder design. A single specimen from the group, almost certainly a later issue. K3 Lotus Sprout 1/4 Fuang Silver, 8-9m, avg. .31g for 27 pieces, flat flan. This is what Quiroga called a snake, but it is a lotus seed with a curling root sprout, forked at the end, and (on some specimens) two bumps indicating lower forkings of the root. The spiral may be c/w or cc/w. Some specimens, possibly later, are cruder in style. Weights noted by Wicks seem to run .3-.6g suggesting a 1/2 Fuang, but without a clear denominational break. K3.1 = cc/w; K3.2 = cw; K3.1c and K3.2c = crude style examples. (which look F-VF), Each: K4 Crown? 1/2 Fuang Silver, 10-11m, avg. .67g for 8 pieces, flat flan. Fine style design, but what is represented is still debatable: heart, heart with flower, coconut, crown, and cocoa bean have all been suggested. Panish assigns this to Siem Reap. Please give second choice of specimen. K7 Hamsa Fuang Silver, 12x15m, 1.33g (with 3 specimens ranging 1.25-1.37g in ANS Museum), dished flan. Simple design of Cock (or Hamsa?) left. This is the best candidate for the coin Quiroga noted as one of three types in circulation in 1595, though it is much rarer today than the other two. It is almost certainly the prototype for the common Hamsa "Fuang" of Phase II. Panish-1b, KM-unlisted. K28a Garuda Fuang Silver, 15m, 1.85g, dished flan. Unpublished? Finely styled Garuda standing right, holding vine? in right hand, solid and beaded borders around. Panish notes only pieces with "snakes" in both hands or neither, and his illustrated specimen shows a fluid, snake-like object, while the Fox specimen looks more like a branch. The Fox specimen is also significantly heavier. Panish states the type was minted at Siem Reap. K14A Lotus Fuang Billon? 15m, 1.41g (holed), dished flan. Unpublished? Finely styled Lotus with leaves at side, floating on water, beaded border around. A different style than Panish's specimen. Perhaps lower fineness than preceding types; the flan is smooth like the billon issues. K17 Horse Fuang Silver or Billon, 15m, 1.14, 1.41g (holed), dished flan. Horse standing right. K15 Goat? Fuang AR-washed Billon, 13-24m, 1.21, 1.25g, concave flan. Variously identified as a bull, mule, tapir, or goat, standing left. K21 Hypogriff Fuang AR-washed Billon, 13m, 1.65g, dished flan. Standing right with head reared back and mouth open, it has also been called a Dragon, and strongly resembles the Lion depicted on Tibetan coinage only after 1909. Panish also notes a double weight piece of this type, the only double piece for the billon series. The silver wash from the Fox specimen has worn away, revealing billon. K22 Hypogriff Fuang AR-washed Billon, 13m, 1.45g, dished flan. Standing left. This type is not listed in Panish. K10 Peacock Fuang AR-washed Billon, 14-12m, 1.37g, concave flan. Beautifully detailed, fine-style bird with slanted back to right, closed beak, perfunctory dashes in front representing vines? Panish 9a K10A Peacock Fuang AR-washed Billon, 14m, 1.51g, flat flan. Fine-style bird with slanted back to left, open beak, holding realistic vine?, below, solid border around but mostly off flan. Panish 9d. K6 Hamsa Fuang Billon?, 13m, 1.70g, round, dished flan. Fine-style Hamsa left with horizontal & vertical crest elements, single beak, vine with bud & branch before, upper tail feathers: curved & branched fore feather, back feather curved with five horizontal elements behind. Recessed eye & detail in body. This is the finest, most detailed example of the Hamsa, and while it appears to be base metal or low-grade billon, it could be the prototype for the common Hamsa Fuang (K32). K24 Garuda Fuang AR-washed Billon, 14m, 1.24, 1.40g, dished flan. Garuda standing left, upraised arms holding snakes?; fine style K25 Garuda Fuang AR-washed Billon, 13.5-15m, avg. 1.32g for 8 specimens, slightly dished flan. Garuda standing left, empty arms upraised, solid and beaded borders around, uniface; fairly crude style. Relatively common, thus likely one of the latest issues of Phase I and probably even later than 1600.
PHASE II COINAGE: c. 1600 - 1870 THAI DOMINATION
Cribb assigns to this period just one basic type, the Hamsa bird (K27,K32). He also notes a progressive debasement of both metal and style. I believe there are two distinct series, a silver Fuang, and a billon or silver-wash Pe (invented "K31"), called takung takom. The silver series drops in fineness within the first variety, and then appears to level off as the style deteriorates, though a constant weight is maintained throughout. The copper/billon comes in four distinct varieties, none clearly derived from another; they range widely in weight, indicating a token coinage. I am uncertain whether the "Pe" precedes, antedates, or is contemporary with the "Fuang". Design elements of Fuang: Hamsa standing left. Body solid at center but broken into three lines fore and aft. Three vertical (upper) tail feathers; hindmost much longer and often curved back, with five horizontal dashes. Right leg joins left leg at body; both with spurs. Single-stroke beak and raised dot for eye (not visible when worn). Circle and five curved lines, detached from body, running approximately 8:00-1:00: Upper two elements representing the crest, third C-like element the top of a vine held in beak, and bottom two elements likely vine bottom and branch, or the bird's wattles. Birds vary in size, most noticeably in the heads, but this variation does not appear to correspond to fineness nor flan characteristics. The flans vary from irregular 16-17m slightly dished, down to rounder thicker, flat 12.5m,corresponding roughly to a drop in fineness. I have roughly judged fineness by appearance and "ring". Weight averages 1.53g independent of fineness, flan size, and size of bird.
K31a.1 Hamsa Pe Circle & Cross Variety Hamsa standing left, body squared in front and upper tail feathers fused into a forward-pointing bun with five horizontal dashes. It is merely speculation, but the cross (not a + or x) could represent Christian influence. This is the rarest of the four types (1 in ANS collection) and a premium is asked for it from Bangkok. For 12 specimens flans range 11-14m, .89-1.46g. They appear to range from base billon to pure copper, though silver wash makes it difficult to tell. Panish-1h, Wicks-iii. Billon or AR-wash examples: K31a.2 Hamsa Pe Circle & Cross Variety, Copper or very low-grade billon. EF-AU, lustre, centered ; VF-EF ; K31b.1 Hamsa Pe No Circle & Cross Variety. Hamsa same basic style, but cruder, lacking in detail. Probably a later issue, but commoner in billon than copper. Panish (1d) illustrates a broad, heavy double unit of this variety. Billon. Panish-1c, Cribb-iv crude VF-EF ; K31b.3 Hamsa Pe No Circle & Cross Variety, Copper K31b.2 Hamsa Pe No Circle & Cross Variety, copper, crude style or thin flan K31c.1 Hamsa Pe Fancy Tail Variety. Fine style variety with a bud at top of branch, and second vertical tail feather is forked. Unpublished variety. Billon or silver-wash K31c.2 Hamsa Pe Fancy Tail Variety. Copper, cruder strikes K31c.3 Hamsa Pe Thin flans with bulbous heads detached from body & cruder style. Possibly the final phase of this coinage. K31d Hamsa Pe Branch Behind Neck Variety with budded branch behind neck and variant upper tail feathers. These tail feathers resemble those on the silver Fuang. Unpublished variety. VF, holed ; blackened, but not bad-looking ; KA31 Hamsa 2 Pe Vine Behind Neck Variety As K31c variety above, but flan 14x15.5m, 2.70g, clearly intended as a double unit. Appears copper rather than billon, and style is crude, so probably a late issue for the series. Unpublished type. K32a Hamsa Fuang Circle & Three Upper Feathers: Large-flan, high-fineness example K32b Hamsa Fuang Circle & Three Upper Feathers, Small-flan, low-fineness example, P-1g, Cribb-ii, KM-32.1 K32S1 Hamsa Fuang Three examples of K32a & K32b, including large, medium, and low fineness (flan size) and different bird sizes, plus a contemporary counterfeit K32c Hamsa Fuang Two upper tail feathers with 5 vertical dashes now detached. Body is now three separate lines (simpler for die-cutter), No raised eye, 12 of 13 specimens with small-headed bird. Fineness visibly lower. Thick, round 13-14m flans, avg. 1.58g K32d Hamsa Fuang No circle before bird. Second element of crest has become upper portion of beak with vine between. Fineness visibly lower, perhaps .500-.600, flans 12-13.5m, avg. 1.77g, significantly heavier perhaps to compensate for the fineness. Variations of style include upper tail feathers three, two or partly blurred together; dashes four or five (rarely 3 or 6); and right leg entering body center, body at left leg, or left leg at center. There are no weight differences associated with these variations. Panish 1e, Cribb-i & iii, KM-31.2 K32S2) Four examples of K32d, all with different details VF-EF ; Single piece: K32d.1 Hamsa Fuang Specimens in the no-circle group which appear to be better fineness (.700-.800?) and intermediate style between b and d K32e Hamsa Fuang Crude style, Billon, perhaps .400-.500, 13m, 1.76g for 6 specimens. The bird's body is now solid and squared in front, with head thrust forward. Panish-1e, Cribb-ii An example of this variety weighing 5.63gm was found in 2006, probably intended as a 4 fuang. K32e.1 Hamsa Fuang Two small, low-weight examples suggest that this variety may indeed be the last issues of this Fuang type. 12m, avg. 1.22g KA33 Hamsa 4 Fuang Crude style, Billon, perhaps .400-.500, variety as K32e, 13m, 5.63g
and NATIONAL COINAGE
Cambodia's first national coinage was struck in Udon using European dies and machinery. Problems with the 1853 strikings from Ingram dies led to a second series c. 1856 using Heaton dies. More than one die variety is known for some, though the differences are small. The Tical and 1/4 Tical are unique among world coinages in bearing dates in three eras. The coppers with "3 3+4" legend (KM #1,2) are also from this period, the intriguing question being whether they preceded the silver coinage and provided their design, or were contemporary.
K1 Pe (c.1847-59) 2.66gm on standard of 1/100 Salung, 13x14.5mm, Uniface K1 Pe (c.1847-59) 2.58gm on standard of 1/100 Salung, 14mm, Uniface K33a 1/8 Tical (c.1856, Heaton dies) Closed horizontals in temple. 1.68gm F+, large hole $75; 1.85gm K33b 1/8 Tical (c.1856, Heaton dies) Open horizontals in temple. 1.73gm A very similar piece went for in the 1/09 Heritage Sale, Lot 50414. K33X 1/8 Tical Lapa counterfeit (1970s). Heavier (2.0-2.5gm), flatter strike, cruder die work. Many differences in bird, but neck is most obvious: 5 horizontal lines & 3 diagonal, vs 6 & 2 in genuine. Rev. is accurate as var. b, but stylistically cruder. Not for sale. K35 1/4 Tical (1853, Ingram dies) 22.5mm, 3.65gm K34 1/4 Tical (c.1856, Heaton dies) 20mm, 3.63gm Significant revision of design. K37a Tical (1853, Ingram dies) 35-35.5mm, 14.3 - 15.4gm. Dies A/1 VF+-EF (a,b) ; VF (c) ; K37b Tical (1853, Ingram dies) 35-35.5mm, 14.3 - 15.4gm. Dies B/2 VF+-EF light scratches obv & rev (a) ; K37c Tical (1853, Ingram dies) 35-35.5mm, 14.3 - 15.4gm. Dies B/3 K37 Tical, Counterstamped (1853, Ingram dies) 35mm av) K37a Sun c.s obv Vg/F, holes ; aw) K37a Western "5" obv Vg-F, scratches, ex-mount ; bv) K37b Sun c/s rev VF+-EF ; bz) K37b Chops, 3-char Chinese obv, "100%" and Arabic "8"(?) rev F+, ugly mount removal, cleaned K36 Tical (c.1856, Heaton dies) 30mm, 14.0 - 15.5gm Significant revision of design.gm EF-AU, rainbow toning (a) ; VF+ (b) ; VF, hole (c) ; F-VF, hole (d) K36 Tical, Counterstamped (c.1856, Heaton dies) 30mm v) "Shun" c/s rev (a) F+ ; w) Chinese c/s rev Fine (c) ,
A mysterious third set of dies dated 1209, with features common to both the Ingram and Heaton dies, was used to strike patterns, probably in Europe. The SCWC erroniously lists the 1/4 Tical as a silver circulation strike.
Minor Coinage: The common Praq Pe (K11), dated by Cribb to 1870-1900, suggests a significant need for coins smaller than the 5 and 10 Centime. A Standing Garuda Pe (K26) was issued c.1880-1902 from the mint machinery installed in 1880. Many dies exist, but no significant varieties. The corresponding 4 Pe is much rarer. Trial strikings and patterns for Centimes (KM-Tn1) were made in Europe in 1897 (Lecompte, Yeoman) or 1875-1904 (KM), corresponding to types widely used in French Indo and Cochin China 1875-1902. A scarce series of 10, 15, 20, and 25 (Centime) tokens are noted by H. Rolland (1932) as "a l'usage du palais (1906)."
K11 Hamsa (Praq) Pe Crude Hamsa left with crest, vine, and tail feathers as detached elements around. Chinese Ji (luck) in box above. From style and silvering, varieties with one or two dots above upper tail feathers and five horizontal dashes behind appear to be earlier than the variety with no dots above, and four dots behind. 1850-80 (Panish) or 1870+ (Cribb). K11a = one dot above, 5 dashes behind; K11b = 2 dots above, 5 dashes behind; K11c = No dot above, 5 dots behind; Order "K11" for my choice, best grade. Each: VF-EF ; K11S1 Hamsa (Praq) Pe Set of 3 varieties, K11a with silvering, others with traces or no silvering. K11W Hamsa (Praq) Pe From an old bulk purchase, unsorted, per 10 pieces K26 Garuda Pe Machine-struck, ca. 1880-1902, Garuda standing left, R: Preah / Dambaan (Batambaang) in old Khmer script. Beaded edges. K26 Garuda Pe Machine-struck, ca. 1880-1902, Garuda standing left, R: Preah / Dambaan (Batambaang) in old Khmer script. Beaded edges. Poor (not shown) ; Fine (a, b) ; VF (c) ; K30 Garuda 4 Pe Similar in design to the Pe, but tail is upraised and different style; cartouches to either side, R: different 3-line legend in wreath. 22m, 3.89, 4.54g, compared to average 1.2g for the Pe. The two Fox specimens are different dies. L4 Centime "Business" strike with square center hole, 1.04gm, copper? L1 Centime, Pattern/Trial Thick version with wire rims and round guide-hole in unpunched square center, 1.81gm, brass L8 Centime, Pattern/Trial Normal weight with unpunched square center hole, 1.26gm, brass L8v Centime, Pattern/Trial Light weight with unpunched square center hole, 0.86gm, brass L98+ Palace Tokens L98) 10 Centimes, L100) 15 Centimes, L102) 20 Centimes, L104) 25 Centimes Each 25.5mm, 3.7-4.0gm
"1860" Series Dated for Nordom I's accession, though first struck in 1875 in Belgium, with later restrikes in Cambodia, and business strikes of the 5 and 10 Centime in Heaton. There are actually six to thirteen metal and striking varieties for each denomination; "regular," Essai (normal and proof), Piefort, off-metal strikes, and Cambodian restrikes are the main categories. The silver were intended as largesse issues: one series of light-weight restrikes was for the 1899 cremation of the Queen Mother. The regular and restrike silver did curculate, and repeat orders were given to the Heaton Mint for circulation strikes of the 5 and 10 Centimes. However, the editors of Krause's SCWC have failed to link the "award" coinages of Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia with the Western commemorative tradition, resulting in the omission of most of the Thai multiple-mark bullets, and lately the removal of the entire "1860" Cambodia series to Unusual World Coins, though Vietnam's extensive series is in the main catalog.
K42 5 Centime European strike (Belgium or Heaton), 4.9-5.1gm L14 Fine (not shown) ; AU10% (a) ; UC85% (b, c) ; K42s 5 Centime Silver Restrike, 5.88gm Progressive die crack under TIMES seen on regular strikes is stronger, plus roughness about head and face suggest a striking date after 1875 but perhaps before the 1899 restrikes. L-nl, Unrecorded; unique? Despite the KM42.2 listing, there were probably no base metal restrikes of this denomination. L15, 16 10 Centime, Pattern Unadopted "small head" type with IER and stars in obv legend, otherwise as K43. GHW on truncation and ESSAI beneath neck. L16) Bronze, 10.13gm K-E2 AU-UC50% ; L15) Silver, 11.70gm K43a 10 Centime European strike (likely Belgium), 9.80-10.03gm L22 Pr-G, well worn (could be restrikes?) $1.75 each; (a) early strike, bold, slightly o.c. UC10%; (b,c) die crack above U CAMB, softer strikes UC85-90% K43b 10 Centime European strike (likely Heaton), 10.15gm C.WURDEN below neck is bolder, and the lettering both sides is more cursive in style. Better strike and more "prooflike" appearance than 43a (L22v) K43E 10 Centime, Essai European strike (likely Belgium), 9.31, "E" beside neck, otherwise just as 43a L20, KM-EA3 K43R 10 Centime Restrikes R1) Cracked dies L-23/24 F-VF (not shown) , Good strike UC20% ; R2) VF ; R3) "CENTINES" weak Fine ; R4) Re-engraved denomination with massive rev. die problems, interesting L-26 Fine ; R5) Various pieces with re-engraved rev legend L-27, etc. (not shown) Each: K44 25 Centime Belgian strike, 1.31gm L35 K44E 25 Centime, Essai Belgian strike. 44E) Essai, 1.37gm, KM-E3, L31 Proof strike, UC ; 44EP) Piefort Essai, 2.66gm, L30, KM-P3 K44R 25 Centime Restrike, 1899 KM44.2, L37 1.46gm F-VF, weak rev (a) ; 1.55gm EF-AU, weak rev (b) K44RG 25 Centime, Gold Gold Restrike, 1899 1.78gm KMPn6, L36 Auction result: UBS (Swiss) 9/6/05, Lot 4717: . K45 50 Centime Belgian strike, 2.64gm, L45 Pr/G, holed ; K45E 50 Centime, Essai Belgian strike, L42, KM-E4 Regular strike, "E" 2.45gm AU ; Proof Strike with wire rim, 2.63gm K45R 50 Centime Restrike, 1899 KM45.2, L48-50? 1.39gm, thin flan, cracked & rough dies K45M 50 Centime Restrike of the "1860" obverse with a new reverse die, suggesting this SOUVENIR die was produced before 1902. L109 2.15gm VF, decent strike (b) ; 2.33gm (a) K46 1 Franc Belgian strike, D of signature over 0 of date (= Die used for restrikes), gm, L57 K46EP 1 Franc, Essai Belgian strike, "E" by neck, double-thick Piefort, DE of signature over 0 of date, a different die than used for business strikes. 10.75gm, L53 K46R 1 Franc Restrike, 1899 & other? R) 3.78gm Usual thin, crude flan, weak strike typical of the 1899 restrikes, L60 looks F-VF (a) R2) 4.09gm, coarse reeding, unusual ↑ ↑ rotation; dies show rust but no cracks. Good appearance, probably pre-1899, L61 (b) K47a 2 Franc Belgian strike, 9.31gm, L68, D of signature center-right over O of date; die used for regular and restrikes. K47b 2 Franc Belgian strike, 10.0gm, L68v, D of signature centered over O of date; an earlier strike, judging by progressive die problems. K47E 2 Franc, Essai Belgian strike, E by neck, die as 47a, L65, 10.12gm (a) Proof strike, UC ; 9.91gm (b) K47R 2 Franc Restrike, 1899 & other? R) 7.35gm, L70, (a) crude VF, edge filings & scratches ; 7.24gm, L70, (b) crude, looks VF-EF ; R2) 7.92gm (heavier), unusual ↑ ↑ rotation, probably earlier than 1899 restrike, L71 (c) K48a 4 Franc Belgian strike, 19.71gm, L80, D of signature center-left over O of date; die used for regular and restrikes. Auction results this variety: Stacks 12/17/08, Lot 1075; , Goldbergs 5/26/08, Lot 882; !! K48b 4 Franc Belgian strike, 20.34gm, L80, D of signature centered over O of date. Auction results this variety: Hess-Divo 11/27/04, Lot 1271; . K48E 4 Franc, Essai Belgian strike, E by neck, die as 48a, L74 20.38gm No auction results found, but Lecompte prices them the same as Proofs. K48E2 4 Franc, Essai Belgian strike, E by neck, die as 48a, plain edge. Lecompte #79 is given as a plain edged Proof non-Essai issue 15.30gm (light) No auction results found, but Lecompte prices them the same as Proofs. K48R 4 Franc Restrike, 1899, 15.76-17.53gm, L83, AU-UC (a) (a slabbed MS62 brought ; VF (c,d,e) each; Low grades: Fine (f) ; G-Vg (g,h) ; AF, hole, Plain edge! (could be altered??) (j) K49a Piastre-Peso Belgian strike, 25.53gm, L93, N of signature centered over O of date; this die also used for restrikes. Lecompte does not list proofs, but business strikes could be mistaken as such. Recent auction results for "Proofs": Stacks 4/24/08, Lot 1419 Pitted die: ; Goldberg 5/26/08, Lot 881 Scratches in field: , and the same coin in Stacks 1/12/09, Lot 4381: K49b Piastre-Peso Belgian strike, 27.10gm, L93v, O of signature centered over O of date. K49C Piastre-Peso Copper, plated in silver, plain edge, die as 49b, 17.21gm, L89 K49R Piastre-Peso Restrike, probably pre-1899 Die roughness evident, esp. @ 5:00-7:00 obv. Edge reeding very faint. Proper weight (25.55gm). Lecompte does not list a restrike. The quality of this piece places it in a league with regular strikes.
1902 Series Even the European-struck Essais show die cracks, suggesting poor initial quality, and by 1902, year of the Hanoi Exhibition, new dies were clearly required. The new design features variations in date (1902) portrait, coat of arms & legends; "SOUVENIR" in place of denomination, and plain edges.
K44S 25 Centime 1902, Hanoi Expo commem? 1.46-1.53gm New design: variations in portrait, coat of arms & legends; "SOUVENIR" replaces denomination, plain edges. L106, KM-nl AU (a) ; K44SG 25 Centime, Gold 1902, Hanoi Expo commem? 1.97gm, L105, K45S 50 Centime 1902, Hanoi Expo commem? SOUVENIR L108 2.29gm Vg-F, hole (b) ; 2.22gm (a) K46S 1 Franc 1902, Hanoi Expo commem? SOUVENIR L111, 3.38gm (a) VF+ ; 4.16gm (b) EF+ ; 4.25gm (c)
Independent Coinage Turbulence as a result of America's war in Vietnam produced a series of governments 1953 - present. The communist regimes put Cambodia's name on a series of ridiculous commemoratives of themes and events bearing no relation to Cambodia, produced by the Havana Mint.
K51-53 10, 20, 50 Centimes 1953, aluminum, Y11-13 Set UC ; K51E-53E 10, 20, 50 Centimes, Essai 1953, aluminum, Proofs with ESSAI in reverse field, KM-E9, E10, E11 K51E, 52E) 10 or 20 Centime, each ; K53E) 50 Centime K51P-53P 10, 20, 50 Centimes, Piefort 1953, aluminum, Proof on double thick planchet with ESSAI in reverse field, 104 mintage, KM-PE9, PE10, PE11. Ponterio 4/25/08 Sale, 10 and 20 Centime set, Lot 1673: ; K52P) 20 Centime ; K53P) 50 Centime K54-56 10, 20, 50 Centimes 1959, aluminum, Y11a-13a (K56 50 Centimes UC ) K59 Riel Khmer Repiblic, 1979, F.A.O. EF-AU ; K64 50,000 Riels, Gold 1974, Three dancers in headgear K69 5 Sen Kampuchea, 1979 K70 20 Riels 1988, Sailing ship, Cuba Mint K75 4 Riels 1991, 700 Years Swiss Unity, an important anniversary in Cambodia!
MEDALS, DECORATIONS, AMULETS
H. Rolland (1932) describes a number of medals issued in France from about 1686 with Cambodian themes, and four brass medalets honoring Nordom I's accession in 1860, two of which are listed by Lecompte. Also likely struck in Europe is a series of at least fourteen designs commemorating various events 1860 to the end of the monarchy in 1970, each approximately the size and weight of the 4 Franc coin, some with 2 and 1 Franc counterparts, as well as gold strikes. These are usually found circulated, and are arguably as much a part of Cambodia's coinage as the "1860" silver series. Lecompte lists them to 1928, and Gadoury through 1965. Civilian and Military decorations are listed by John Sylvestre, The Orders and Medals of Cambodia and Laos. An extensive but uncatalogued series of crude cast(?) silver charms or amulets has a common theme of a man (Buddha?) standing under a tree , holding a staff and jug, or pot.
L112+ Horseback Medallet 26mm brass L113) Brass AU-UC ; L113L) Brass, looped AU-UC ; L112) Silver plated L120 Silver Pagoda Consecration, 1902, (4 Franc), G18, KM-Pn15! L124 Funeral of Nordom I, 1905, (4 Franc), G19 L133 Coronation of Sisowath I, 1906 (4 Franc), G23 VF with minor problems (a,b,c) ; L146 Coronation of Sisowath II, 1928, (4 Franc), G29 small hallmark stamped in edge L175 Independence 11th Anniversary, 1964, 65.43gm, 59.5mm, G46 S17/3 Royal Decoration Anussara Medal of Royal Remembrance (1951) N. Sihanouk left, Cambodian legend, 35m, Bz S19/3 Royal Decoration Official Labor Medal, issued Sept. 9, 1948 Statue of Visnoukan, bronze open-work, 40mm, no bar/ribbon, uniface S1 Peoples Republic Vietnamese-style red & gold aluminum with pinback bar Ò7.1.1979Ó above 35m with soldier holding rifle, inscrip. for liberation (defeat of Pol Pot regime by Viet forces) M400+ Silver Amulets These appeared in the Taisei-Baldwin-etc sales until 1995, generally bringing $100+, but I have not seen them offered lately. M400) gm, 41mm ; M401) gm, 44mm ; M402) gm, 40mm ; M403) gm, 40mm ; M404) gm, 40mm ; M405) gm, 43mm ; M406) gm, 41.5mm ; M407) gm, 44.5mm ; M408) gm, 40mm ;
CAMBODIAN LOTUS TOKENS
This series has been attributed to Ayutthia and to Angkor (Mitchiner), but M&K's idea of post-Angkor Cambodia is more realistic. The metal, lack of consistent weight, and alternation of shape among the denominations suggests to me that they are tokens, probably for gambling, though this does not predlude a wider use as money. Specimens often show metal ageing, but most show little wear. Obverse and reverse disigns are the same. My assignment of the value ratios is pure guesswork. Photos show typical examples.
T100a Unit Round, 42mm, 29.03gm (1). Obv & Rev: Four Lotus with branches either side separated by double pellets. Outer rim & circle; Drilled center hole with 2 circles, obv. only. Fine style. Metal shows considerable age. T100b Unit Round, 38-39mm, 17.30-32.93gm, avg. 26.16 (11). Cast center hole, inner rings both sides. Good style. Metal shows significant age. MN2654 VF-EF but crusty ; T100c Unit Round, 37-40mm, 19.06-22.98gm, avg 20.75 (5). Generally cruder style. Metal shows significant age. Possibly contemporary copies of T100b T100d Unit Round, 37mm, 22.34-30.40gm, avg. 26.56 (7). Crude style. Metal shows some age, but clearly not older than 19th C. T100e Unit Round, 36mm, 17.36gm. Poor style and casting. A contemporary fake. T100f Unit Round, 33mm, 16.48-20.09gm, avg. 18.62 (3). Design has devolved to a series of five beaded crescents surrounding pellets. T100g Unit Round, 57mm, 69.47-86.76gm, avg. 76.66 (5). Degenerated design. Metal shows little age. Likely a modern "bigger is better" fake for collectors or tourists. MN2653 T102b 1/2 Unit Scalloped, 29-32mm, 11.72-18.32gm, avg. 14.54 (14). Well defined scalloped edge with inner borders forming five cartouches; Central hole with double border. Lotus bud with enclosing forked branches either side. Wide variation in size and form of buds and branches. Generally good style. Metal shows significant age. T102c 1/2 Unit Scalloped, 29-30mm, 10.96-18.14gm, avg. 13.89 (11). Poorly defined scalloped edge. Otherwise as T102b. Wide variation in size and form of buds and branches. Generally good style. Metal shows significant age. MN2655 - 2657 T102d 1/2 Unit Scalloped, Softer pieces with higher lead content. Generally good style. Metal shows significant age. T102e 1/2 Unit Scalloped, 30mm, 15.45-16.19gm (3) Drilled center holes. Metal does not show significant age. T102f 1/2 Unit Scalloped, 29mm, 13.79-16.17gm, avg. 15.119 (10). Well defined scalloped edge. Identical pieces, poorly cast, sometimes showing mould slippage or filled holes. Metal shows some age, but likely late 20th C. T102g 1/2 Unit Scalloped, 36mm, gm, avg. (9). Poorly defined scalloped edge. Similar pieces, poorly cast. Design devolved to lumps and lines. Probably moern forgeries with deliberately enhanced size. T104a 1/8 Unit Round, 17mm, 4.18gm Center hole, outer and inner rims. Four lotus heads with curled branches at side. Metal shows some age. T104b 1/8 Unit Round, 15-17mm, 3.81, 3.78, 3.56, 2.88gm, Different pieces still showing floral design. Metal shows some age. MN2662 T104c 1/8 Unit Round, 16-17mm, 2.11 - 4.20gm, avg. 3.29 (8). Pellets & Crescents design. Slipped moulds on some. MN2658-59 T104d 1/8 Unit Round, 15mm, 1.95 - 2.99gm, avg. 2.73 (16). Pellets & Crescents design with little variation within group. Metal slightly softer (more lead) than other classes, shows some age. MN2660-61 T104e 1/8 Unit Round, 14-14.5mm, 3.03 - 4.42gm, avg. 3.51 (8). Pellets & Crescents design with little variation within group. No center hold. Metal shows some age, but likely 20th C. T104L 1/8 Unit Lot of six, mixed varieties, all worn,cracked or heavily encrusted T106 1/16 Unit Scalloped, 11.5 - 14.5mm, .91-2.10gm, avg. 1.51 (5). Center hole, outer and inner rims. Four groups of two pellets in scallops. Scarcest denomination.